Charles James Hall: Tic Tac UFOs Belong to ETs He Encountered Called ‘Tall Whites’

Walking with the Tall Whites, a new Amazon Prime film covers Charles James Hall’s story, who claims he lived with extraterrestrials for two years. While most alien encounters stories tend to be brief, Hall claims he slowly learned to communicate and know them very well.

Hall was enlisted in the United States Air Force in 1964 and was stationed at a remote weather shack on the Nellis Air Force Base outside Las Vegas, Nevada, in ’65. There, he was tasked with observing weather patterns on the Gunnery ranges at Indian Springs. 

Soon after marrying his wife, Marie-Therese, he disclosed that he had many encounters with what he described as “Tall Whites” at Indian Springs. Although not particularly interested in ETs, she believed him. Nevertheless, the topic remained private as they raised a family.

After eighteen years, Marie-Therese was surprised to learn her husband had been writing memoirs about his experiences. After reading them, she encouraged him to publish the memoirs, which share a unique recollection with many interesting details of what he claims took place.

Note: If you haven’t seen the show, this will contain spoilers.

Tall Whites and Range 4 Harry 

Before heading to his new assignment at a remote weather shack, Hall’s buddies told him about a legend on the base about “Range 4 Harry.” According to the story, Harry was “a large white radioactive horse that floated around the deserts.”

Hall believed it was a funny story meant to intimidate him as a new person and shrugged it off. However, it seemed there was much more to the story.

In the spring of 1965, the man he would replace as weather observer reluctantly took him on a brief tour of the weather shacks. While driving by truck, he became visibly “palsied with fear,” shaking and refusing to get out of the truck. Inside the shack, Hall found the logbook neglected as if nobody had been there for months.

Upon returning to base, the man told Hall he would never return and that he was “on his own.” Left to figure it all out for himself, Hall was isolated at the weather shacks and began to realize he was not alone. 

First, he began seeing groups of mysterious floating lights in the sky. Later, he started seeing strange white figures. All the while, sounds that he thought were Western Meadowlarks seemed to move together in the nearby valley.

Alone in the Desert With Extraterrestrials

Hall describes first seeing a tall white woman inside the barracks late one night. She held a mysterious square object, lurking in the dark of the latrines. Hall described feeling so shocked by the encounter that he could only think to keep walking and go back to bed. 

From there, the encounters with tall white figures continued. One day, he spotted a young girl running in mazes of sagebrush and went to help. As he got closer, the Meadowlark sounds seemed to surround him. 

He drew closer and realized she wasn’t human.

“I could see she was a little girl, but she wasn’t a human little girl,” said Hall. “The shock I felt can hardly be described.”

Overcome with fear, he staggered back to the weather shack. As he headed back, a tall white man he thought must be Range 4 Harry started running toward him. All that Hall could do was make his way back to the shack, dumbfounded by what he was seeing. Afterward, he entered a self-denial phase, not wanting to believe the encounter was real.

Encounters Continue

After the harrowing experience with Range 4 Harry, Hall continued to see Tall Whites around the weather shacks. He began to realize they were curiously watching him, listening in on his conversations. A woman appeared looking at him, gleaming white in the sun. After following, Range 4 Harry stood up to let him know he was there too.

Alone in the desert, Hall had nobody to validate his experience. Was it real? Or, was his mind playing tricks on him? 

“He was obviously perfectly real, and she was perfectly real. I couldn’t accept it emotionally,” he said.

After that encounter, he gradually began communicating with Range 4 Harry and learning more about the beings around him. In time, he learned the Tall Whites could imitate human voices on the phone. However, they communicated with each other with high-pitched sounds. To him, they sounded like Western Meadowlarks.

Advanced Beings Cautious Around Humans  

From there, the encounters became more frequent, and he wasn’t sure at times if it was all a hallucination. 

One day a smiling alien woman appeared over his shoulder as he wrote notes. Her skin was paperwhite, and she had thin platinum hair, small ears, thin lips, and small features. 

Looking back, he believes she could have otherwise passed as human. On the other hand, she wore a suit that allowed her to levitate and a small helmet. Following the experience, he felt like he was going crazy with nobody to help him.

“I was dazed, and I was in shock,” he said. “There’s so many ways that you can be caught unawares and be afraid,” he said.

“You probably don’t realize how much humans depend on each other to validate their experience.”

In another encounter, he remembered the ETs used a square digital instrument to hypnotize him. Nevertheless, he could remember some of what happened. One day an alien scout craft blocked the road, forcing him to back up and return to base.

Details About the Extraterrestrials

Over many months, the encounters progressed until discovering many things about the beings. For example, he claims the Tall Whites may live 600 to 800 years, and communicate in sounds we can’t hear using their excellent hearing.

Notably, Hall suggests they first began visiting Earth in 5,000 BC.

In height, they’re tall but fragile in strength compared to humans. Unlike us, they are not adapted to Earth and more vulnerable. Thus, when near humans, they are extremely cautious and always well-armed.

“Even if they’re your friends, when they come, there’s always a certain tension,” Hall said.

Fiercely protective of their children, the Tall Whites would not hesitate to defend their families.

“You never once wanted to surprise them or scare them,” he continued. 

Related: This Thai cult claims to have communicated with aliens for over two decades

Cooperation With the Government?

Although they were cautious, Hall claims the Tall Whites cooperate with the US military. In exchange for the base at Indian Springs, they shared some knowledge, unwilling to share everything about their technologies. In particular, they were reluctant to share deep space propulsion technology, he says.

Interestingly, Hall claims the Tall Whites have offered the government multiple Earth-like exoplanets. Since there are many, the ETs are not territorial.

In exchange, they requested help building bases their on which to land their spacecraft. Since the planets are relatively cold, they are not desirable to the Tall Whites as more than a temporary landing site.

“They offered to give these planets, lock, stock, and barrel, to the American generals. And, in return, they wanted the American generals to build just one base for the Tall Whites so that they had a place to put in with their deep spacecraft to repair, refuel, and refurbish for standing out in deep space again. The American generals were very keen on colonizing these planets.”

Today, Hall remains unsure if the generals of two species ever reached an agreement.

Related: Did a ‘Galactic Federation’ Ask Trump Not To Reveal Extraterrestrials?

Tall Whites and the ‘Tic Tac’ UFOs

In the film, Hall views the UFO footage validated as authentic by the US Navy. According to him, the so-called “Tic Tac” UFO footage matches what he knows about Tall White scout craft. Thus, he has no doubt the videos are authentic and related to the beings he knew long ago.

Since 1967, Hall has never seen the Tall Whites again but are probably still visiting Earth. He remains open to the chance to meeting them again one day. Overall, his experience is interesting, and he seems to believe what he’s saying genuinely. 

Tall Whites and Edward Snowden?

As an interesting (and bizarre) side note: In 2014, Edward Snowden’s leaked documents seemed to align somewhat with Hall’s story. However, it also included many conspiracy theories. Notably, the content may have originated with an alleged report by Russia’s FSB spy agency, later published in Iran. Considering the source, it’s highly dubious to say the least.

From Forbes:

“Snowden, who has been given asylum in Russia, leaked documents that a race of extraterrestrial ‘tall whites’ arrived on Earth, helped Nazi Germany build a fleet of advanced submarines in the 1930s, and then met in 1954 with President Dwight Eisenhower ‘where the ‘secret regime’ currently ruling over America was established.”

Seen an excerpt of Walking with the Tall Whites below.

Featured image: Screenshot via YouTube


Mermaids and Mermen: Are Ancient Legends of Sea Goddesses in Alaska True?

Are legends of mermaids and mermen based on something real? If so, stories dating back to the first writings are nothing like the Little Mermaid. 

Sinde 1988, more than 16,000 people have vanished in a triangular area, the “Bermuda Triangle of Alaska.” The missing person rate is twice the national average, with four missing person reports for every 1,000 people.

When Alaskans go missing, the search area can be as large as entire states in the lower 48. Thus, state troopers rarely find any trace of bodies, either dead or alive. Worse, the rugged wilderness makes finding missing persons all the more unlikely.

For the native Inuit culture, it’s thought at least some disappearances are attributed to supernatural beings.

Mermaids and Mermen of Inuit Legends 

For our purposes, we will refer to these legends as mermaids and mermen. However, the stories are quite unlike what we tend to think of as merfolk.

For example, Qalupalik is said to have green skin and enjoys snatching children away should they get too close to the water. Inuit sea goddess has many names with unique mythologies. These beings may be helpful to humans or extremely dangerous. 

For example, hunters tried to appease Sedna so their hunts would be fruitful. She controls all sea life from her home at the bottom of the ocean. Strangely, seals, walruses, fish, and whales sprang from her severed fingers. Her father cut them off to save himself from drowning, according to one telling.

  • Sedna
  • Nuliayuk
  • Taluliyuk
  • Taleelayuk
  • Qalupalik 


Qalupalik is said to have long hair and long fingernails and wears an amautik. This Inuit parka has a pouch for holding babies. Not exactly a Disney character…

Parents in the northern Arctic told the story to children to discourage them from wandering off. If they get too close to the sea, the Qualupalik could take them away in her pouch to raise as her own.

Thus, it’s similar in that way to the stories of the Namahage in Japan or the Krampus in Germany. By telling the stories, parents can discourage bad behavior.

See more about the Qualupalik from the Nunavut Animation Lab.

Is Qalupalik Moving South?

With greenish, webbed hands, Qalupalik snatches away both children and adults. Using a pouch-like garment, they hold their victims as they head back to the water. 

Stories of the Qalupalik originate in the northernmost regions, but now it appears the creatures could be moving further south in search of prey.

As climate change affects the Arctic, sightings further south are reported. Could it be due to the movements of potential prey like salmon? It’s one theory. Today, salmon are disappearing from much of their ranges and getting smaller. Maybe, that’s pressuring Qalupalik into more populated areas.

Encounters with Qualupalik

In the series, Missing in Alaska, witnesses describe encounters with what could be the Qualupalik. A fisherman loses his buddy to the water after seeing a green-webbed hand appear on the boat. A mysterious shape in the water snatches a net from a fisherman. Another witness loses a friend while hunting for shellfish on the shore. After a scream, he finds webbed footprints in the sand.

See more about the Inuit legend of mermaids and mermen from HISTORY below:

Henry Hudson’s Account 

The first European to sail up the river into the bay that now bears his name, Henry Hudson wrote in his logbook after his crew saw a mermaid in 1608. In the account, it’s clear the mermaid is very human in features.

“One of our company, looking overboard, saw a mermaid, and calling up some of the company to see her, one more came up, and she was then close the ship’s side, looking earnestly on the men. Soon afterward, a sea came and overturned her. Her back and breasts were like a woman’s, her body as big as one of us; her skin very white, and long black hair hanging down behind. In her going down, they saw her tail, like the tail of a porpoise, and speckled like mackerel. Their names that saw her were Thomas Hills and Robert Rayner.” 

Although some suggest mermaids and mermen were sightings of sea cows, this description seems to put that to rest.

The Kushtaka or Land-Otter Man

Tlingit and Tsimshian peoples indigenous to southeastern Alaska have stories of the Kushtaka. The name roughly translates to “Land-Otter Man” and is considered by some like the Bigfoot of the Alaskan Triangle. However, this creature is said to steal souls and viciously attack people.

According to Discovery:

“Legend has it that the creature appears to travelers in an irresistible form (such as a relative or vulnerable child) to lure victims to a nearby river, where it tears them to shreds or turns them into another Kushtaka.”

See more about the Kushtaka from Missing in Alaska from the HISTORY channel:

The First Stories of Merfolk 

Tales of mermaids date back to ancient Mesopotamia with the deity, Oannes, and Atargatis in ancient Syria. According to Britannica, Oannes was described like this:

“Oannes, as described by the Babylonian priest Berosus, had the form of a fish but with the head of a man under his fish’s head and under his fish’s tail the feet of a man. In the daytime, he came up to the seashore of the Persian Gulf and instructed mankind in writing, the arts, and the sciences. Oannes was probably the emissary of Ea, god of the freshwater deep and of wisdom.”

From Syria, stories of sea goddess Atargatis may have led to Greek stories of Aphrodite.

Enki, a Merman-Like God Who Saved Humans

Ea is the Sumerian Enki, meaning “lord of the Earth,” who created men as slaves to the gods. In appearance, Enki was represented like the astrological sign for Capricorn, half-goat, half-fish. Some say he was a merman who saved humanity from a flood sent by the god, Enlil. His son was Marduk, also known as Bel (Lord), the god of Babylonia mentioned in the Bible, with his hybrid dragon.

God Ea (Sumerian Enki), flanked by fish-cloaked apkallu
God Ea (Sumerian Enki), flanked by fish-cloaked apkallu by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg) via Wikimedia Commons,(CC BY-SA 4.0)

Worldwide Mermaids and Mermen

Across the world, mermen and mermaid goddesses are seen in legends. In ancient Greece, Triton was revered as the son of Poseidon. Today, people who practice Hindu teachings may worship mermaid goddesses such as Suvannamacch, the golden mermaid. 

Meanwhile, in Japan, stories of the Ningen, a giant sea-going humanoid from the Antarctic, are popular today. Ancient Japanese folklore tells of the Ningyo, another mermaid-like fish with a human face.

Related: Meet the Ningen: Giant humanoids of the Antarctic continent

See more about merfolk across the world from BRIGHT SIDE:

Featured image: Sedna, Sanna with severed fingers (Sanna aux doigts coupés) by Caroline Léna Becker via Wikimedia CommonsCC BY-SA 4.0 with screenshot via YouTube/HISTORY



Is There a Connection Between Petroglyphs in Georgia and Bronze Age Europe?

Petroglyphs found in Georgia show a possible connection between some of the earliest archaeological sites in the United States and Bronze Age Europe.

Symbols found etched into stone are remarkably similar. At one ancient site in Savannah, Georgia, some also point to possible connections with the Mesoamericans. Nevertheless, today, those sites are obscure and, in one case, merely relegated to the side of a desolate highway overpass.

The Uchee or Yuchi Tribe

The Uchee (also spelled Euchee, Outchee, Uchi, or Yuchee), Creek, and Seminole tribes that created these sites long ago were uprooted and all-but-destroyed when Europeans arrived in the late 1600s. The name the Uchee gave themselves was Tsoyaha or Coyaha, “Children of the Sun.” 

These Native Americans spoke a unique language unrelated to any other, which is endangered today. However, remaining ancestors are working to restore their heritage before it’s lost forever.

# 787 We celebrate the Tsoyaha Yudgiha for many reasons… Today, they are a very much forgotten Indigenous people that…

Posted by Yuchi (Tsoyaha) Indigenous People on Wednesday, October 7, 2020

One of those ancestors is Richard L. Thornton, who describes himself as an author, architect, and city planner with Creek and Uchee Indian heritage. Thornton is the architect for Oklahoma’s Trail of Tears Memorial in Tulsa.  

The Home of the Sun

Thornton points out that the Uchee believe their ancestors were from across the ocean. 

“Since their first contacts with the Georgia colonists in 1733, the Uchee have consistently stated that their ancestors came across the Atlantic Ocean from the “home of the sun” and first landed at the mouth of the Savannah River,” writes Thornton.

If true, his theories mean that the Uchee descended from people living some 4,600 miles across the Atlantic.

Sun Lords Petroglyphs
Sun Lords Petroglyphs, image via YouTube, People of One Fire

Signs Almost Forgotten 

After studying the petroglyphs and ancient sites, Thornton believes ancient mariners from Scandinavia traveled to Georgia thousand of years ago. In the pursuit of gold in the Georgia Gold Belt, they interacted with Native people, leaving behind signs. Signs they left behind:

  • Language similarities
  • Cultural symbols
  • Petroglyphs
  • Burial mounds
  • Other ancient sites

For example, Thornton suggests the Tugaloo River’s name may have been derived from the Gaelic word, Togha-re, meaning “Best, Great, or Principal People.” In Creek Indian, the similar word, Tokahle, means “freckled.” Afterward, the 18th century Cherokee version, Dagalu, became the one that is recognized.

Ruins of Ancient Culture

 Pioneering archaeologist Charles C. Jones Jr. described the ancient sites in the Southern US in his book, The Antiquities of the Southern Indians. The book was published in 1873.

Jones described the sites that English-speaking settlers found when they arrived in the south.

“When English-speaking settlers came into the Georgia Piedmont and Mountains, they also encountered many stone structures throughout the landscape. There were many stone-walled terraces, stone altars, and even the ruins of ancient stone buildings.”

However, within a generation, the mysterious structures were gone and almost forgotten. Thinking the Native Americans primitive, they believed the structures were the Spanish or Welsh Prince Madoc’s work. 

See more in the video from People of One Fire below:

Petroglyphs Pointing to Far Away

Previously, we shared Thornton’s story about 4,000-year-old petroglyphs found in Georgia. While studying in Landskrona, Sweden, Thornton was shocked when he recognized symbols on Ven Island, Sweden. 

Although mainstream archaeologists may quickly call it pseudo-archaeology, we share it with our open minds for your consideration.

Bronze Age petroglyphs in Sweden featured the symbol of the Sacred Fire by the Creek and Uchee. Also, the Swedish burial mounds called gravhöger looked like the burial mounds in the Southeastern US and Ohio.

“I immediately noticed that all of the symbols on the boulders were also sacred symbols of the Creek Indians. I am Creek. This disturbing discovery has been at “the back of my head” in the decades since then,” he wrote.

At first, he avoided discussing the similarity between Scandinavian Bronze Age and Creek art. However, after many years of contemplation, he began actively researching the subject. From there, he began sharing what he found on the “People of One Fire” YouTube channel and “The Americas Revealed” site.

Shared Petroglyph Symbols 

One example of the petroglyphs is concentric circles, like ripples in water. According to Thornton, these ripples were considered time portals by Uchee priests.

By looking at them, the priests could determine the past and the future. Notably, these symbols are seen all over the world, with some similar ones dating back 40,000 years. However, they also closely resemble Newgrange’s spirals in Ireland, dating back to 3,300-2,900 BC.

Thornton points out the ripples from the Reinhardt Boulder in Georgia are identical to those found in County Kerry, Ireland. In addition, he found symbols of stars, hexagons, and the Solar Cross called a Sun Wheel in Europe.

To us, it calls to mind the “Camunion Rose” from Lombardy, Italy.

Communion Rose

The Metcalf Stone

The Metcalf Stone found in central Georgia near the Chattahoochee River bears symbols resembling the Linear A script. However, that language originated in the Minoan civilization from Crete during the Bronze Age. 

Dr. Joseph Mahan from Columbus State University theorized the Creek were descendants of people from Crete. Many critics discredited the finding as “bad archaeology.” However, take a look for yourself and decide what you think.

See more about the Metcalf Stone via People Of One Fire:

Track Rock Gap Petroglyphs

Located in Blairsville, GA, the Track Rock Gap site is quick to point out there is “no archeological evidence of any Mayan connection.” Thornton is quick to point out that most of the glyphs are not Mayan. However, he discovered symbols that resembling Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/ Mayan God on Boulder Six.

On other boulders, he saw many symbols that reminded him of Scandinavian Bronze Age symbols. 

Track Rock Gap Petroglyphs
Image via YouTube/People of One Fire

The Tugaloo Stone

At the rear of the Traveler’s Rest State Historic Site, the Tugaloo Stone features an unmistakable boat. Originally the stone was located near the Tugaloo River on a major trade path. Thornton notes the stone was moved and place upside down for over 200 years. 

When rotated, the Tugaloo Stone features what looks identical to Bronze Age Minoan and Phoenician boats. On the other side, symbols that appear to be constellations and a UFO appears.

Tugaloo petroglyph

Tugaloo Petroglyph
Tugaloo Petroglyph, image via YouTube, People of One Fire

See the petroglyphs below via People of One Fire:


Morgan Falls Stone Boat

The Morgan Falls Archaeological Zone is found East of Roswell, Georgia, on the Chattahoochee River. There, a large stone boat burial monument resembles those found in Scandinavia. (see in the video)

The Roberts Petroglyph

At the Sweetwater Creek State Park in Lithia Springs, Georgia, a 600-pound stela (carved monument) features a striking figure. Named the Roberts Petroglyph, the stela exactly resembles a Caribbean Taíno(Arawak) zemí spirit symbol.

Roberts Petroglyph, Sweetwater Creek
Roberts Petroglyph, Sweetwater Creek, image via YouTube

Mow Hill Petroglyph

At Long Swamp Creek, east of Jasper, Georgia, archaeologist Robert Wauchope found an unusual petroglyph in 1939. To us, it seems to resemble a UFO, but Thornton notes it may resemble an Itzamná calendar, with notches like a sundial.

Mow Hill Petroglyph
Mow Hill Petroglyph, image via YouTube, People of One Fire

Bilbo Mound, Savannah, Georgia

Today, sites that could date back to 3545 BC are found near downtown Savannah, Georgia. The oldest of these, the Bilbo Mound, is now all-but-forgotten. From the air, Google Earth photos show that it could be a geoglyph seen from the air, similar to Serpent Mound, Ohio. Notably, the design seems to point to a Mesoamerican Rain Goddess.

See more about the Bilbo Mound below from the Looters Revue Show:

Seeing Ancient Sites with New Eyes 𓂀

These are just a few of the sites that Thornton and People of One Fire have researched. Certainly, there is more to the story than meets the eye. These ancient sites and petroglyphs deserve new eyes to see them without restrictions imposed by conventional timelines, don’t you think?

Ancient cultures give us invaluable insights, and we are only just beginning to fully understand and reconcile with our past. We hope that modern archaeologists and researchers will do more to preserve and understand Uchee sites like those in Georgia.

Featured images: Screenshots via YouTube, People of One Fire


What’s the Significance of the Worldwide Monoliths?

Today, many of us wondering, why do we see stories of monoliths almost daily?

After an excruciating year of divisive politics and a global pandemic, entering a new year is a relief. As if to mark the welcome changes to come, stories of metal monoliths have been a lighthearted distraction. All over the world, the anomalies have been appearing and disappearing.

The Utah Monolith

It started on November 18, 2020, in Utah’s “Red Rock” Country. A state employee counting wild sheep in a helicopter spotted a 3-sided metal monolith standing 10 to 12 feet tall in a remote area of public lands in southeastern Utah. By November 27, the monolith disappeared, and only a triangular piece of metal that used to be on top remained.  

See the Utah monolith via the Guardian below:

Later, a video via Instagram indicated four men removed the structure, saying they wanted to discourage a flood of traffic to the area. Nevertheless, a Reddit user soon pinpointed the probable coordinates to the inhospitable canyon location. Using Google Earth, it seems the unauthorized monolith could have been in place since 2016.

Monoliths Appear All Over the World

From the get-go, people on social media compared the story to the monolith in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. From there, similar monoliths began appearing all over the world, starting in Romania on November 27. There are so many appearances that Monolith tracking has become a thing. Daily, there are more, but as of December 20, the count was at 87 globally.

Monoliths in Utah
The Red Rock Utah Monolith via YouTube

Overall, the incidences appear to be unrelated copycats. In some cases, the creators came forward to take credit, and journalists have pointed out it may be part of a viral marketing scheme. 

While many monoliths, like the recent 7-foot-tall “Gingerlith” monolith in San Francisco, are pranks, others remain mysterious. The edible gingerbread structure appeared on Christmas, a fun distraction for the holidays.

Welcome Distraction in a Dismal Year

Why did so many people catch monolith mania this year? For a group of men in Australia, it was a way to escape the otherwise dismal news.

“We thought, ‘Oh, 2020 is such a dire year,’ so we decided to do something about it,” said prankster artist Alex Apollonov. 

Apollonov and a group of friends hired builders for the monolith they placed in Melbourne. 

Meanwhile, monolith maker Travis Kenney from California created the structure in Atascadero, California. They drew inspiration from Space Odyssey.

“If you know ‘2001: A Space Odyssey,’ you know there were three monoliths,” Kenney told Insider. “I’m like, you know there’s gonna be a third. It’s gonna happen. So why don’t we build it?”

The monolith was a fun way to generate some excitement.

“Everybody’s been kind of just in a shit world,” said Kenney. “Our town got super excited about it.”

2001: A Space Odyssey

The classic movie from the summer of 1968 was far ahead of its time. Now, it’s suddenly back in the spotlight, thanks to all those monoliths. Thus, many of us are wondering, what did the monolith represent in the Stanley Kubrick film?

Monoliths, 2001: A Space Odyssey
A scene from 2001: A Space Odyssey via YouTube

Spoiler alert: If you haven’t seen the film, you might not want to continue.

In the movie, monoliths are central to the story. First, the US government discovers a monolith on the Moon in 2001. It’s found buried 40 feet below the surface.

The monolith, dubbed Tycho Magnetic Anomaly One, or TMA-1, emitted a magnetic field. After a group of astronauts tried taking a selfie in front of it in the Tycho crater, a ringing noise drove them away.

Monolith Causes Apes to Evolve

When people discovered TMA-1, it alerted extraterrestrials called the Firstborn, letting them know we had left Earth, suggests Fandom. 

Four million years ago, the Firstborn conducted experiments in many star systems. Now, they are alerted humans have progressed and are ready for space travel.

After the discovery, four monoliths appear, with different functions. 

In one scene, a group of chimpanzees congregates around the monolith called “New Rock.” It’s thought the monolith is the catalyst that rapidly evolves man’s intelligence. 

Monolith Marking a Milestone

After sunlight touched TMA-1, a chain of events took place. People detected that TMA-1 was sending a signal to a “Big Brother” monolith orbiting Jupiter. This massive monolith is dubbed the Jovian or Jupiter monolith. 

The discovery compelled joint US-Soviet missions to venture deep into space. Long-distance space travel became routine with “hibernaculum pods” for hibernating passengers.

While the crew sleeps, a talking supercomputer, HAL 9000, takes the helm, eventually turning on the human crew.

Related: Who Put The Mysterious Monolith On Phobos?

Monoliths Turn on Humans

Now the self-replicating monoliths began forming enormous clouds to create Lucifer, a small sun. TMA-2 functioned as a Stargate, attracting thousands of other monoliths, which eventually merged with Jupiter to form the sun.

Once created, Lucifer would sustain new life on Jupiter’s moon, Europa. However, the monoliths later became intent on wiping out the human race to protect life on Europa.

After 1,000 years, the monoliths were back and ready to deal the death blow. They formed two clouds to block out light from the Sun on Earth and from Lucifer to a human base on Ganymede. In response, humans unleashed a computer virus to destroy the monoliths.

Humans overcoming monoliths with a virus seems like a curious connection today. The year 2020 sees humans facing a deadly viral pandemic as monoliths appear worldwide.

What Does it All Mean?

So, what do all the monoliths in 2020 mean, if anything?

If we look at 2001: A Space Odyssey, it’s a lesson about the creation of the universe not constrained by any religion. The monoliths ultimately represent a god figure, the work of incomprehensibly advanced beings.

Kubrick’s film was a masterwork with a mysterious, thought-provoking, and ambiguous ending. The evocative film saught to evoke and “open up” and inspire the mind, not give definitive answers.

The only human survivor of the trip to Jupiter, Dave Bowman, overcome HAL’s dangerous AI. Then, he makes it to Jupiter and enters the Stargate.

 From there, Bowman is kept in a sort of “human zoo” by godlike beings of pure energy and spirit. Upon death, he transforms into a superhuman Star Child.

Kubrick once said the advanced aliens in the film would seem like gods to humans as we might appear godlike to an ant.

As the Star Child heads back to Earth, a new enlightened era can begin.

See more in the synopsis from The Take below:

A Shift in Worldview

In 2018, computer scientist Stephen Wolfram described how the Kubrick film had correctly predicted some aspects of the future half a century earlier. Today, developments in advanced AI and routine space travel seem to be on the horizon. 

For Wolfram, the monoliths might, by their very appearance alone, inspire evolution. 

“No ape 4 million years ago had ever seen a perfect black monolith, with a precise geometrical shape. But as soon as they saw one, they could tell that something they had never imagined was possible. And the result was that their worldview was forever changed. And—a bit like the emergence of modern science as a result of Galileo seeing the moons of Jupiter—that’s what allowed them to begin constructing what became modern civilization,” wrote Wolfram.

Humans Have Become the Aliens

For American journalist Jody Rosen, the monoliths signal the tombstone of a terrible year. However, they are symbols of our alienation from the world due to the pandemic. As we look at the new year ahead, we are all hoping to enter a new, more enlightened era.

“It is too early to know if the homemade monoliths rising in streets and parks around the world are totems of a passing craze or lasting landmarks in the making. But it is surely not a stretch to read symbolic significance in their proliferation at the end of the most dreadful year in living memory: a collective desire to mark a transition, to post figurative headstones commemorating the demise of 2020,” write Rosen.

As in the Kubrick film, humans ultimately become extraterrestrials.

“Or perhaps the better metaphor comes from the Kubrick movie. The year has turned us, earthlings, into aliens, wanderers on an unfamiliar planet. Who among us doesn’t want to leave this place behind and go hurtling through space-time, into a new year, and back to another world?” writes Rosen.

Ultimately, marking the end of 2020 with a sighting of worldwide Kubrick-inspired monoliths seems hopeful. They signal that we’ve never been more collectively ready for change, progress, and evolution. We’re entering a crossroads where we can choose our path.

Perhaps the monolith appearance alone is all that’s required to inspire a new worldview? One which will help us realize new possibilities as we face many new challenges ahead?


The Gorman Dogfight: A UFO Chase Near a Fargo Football Game

The Gorman Dogfight: It was “one of the most credible accounts of UFO activity in the country,” according to a recent piece by the Grand Forks Herald from North Dakota.

On Friday evening, October 1, 1948, a crowd formed to watch a college football game on a crisp fall evening in Fargo. The time was 8 p.m. and the game wasn’t yet halfway through.

The Bisons from North Dakota Agricultural College Bison were playing the Augustana Vikings. Nearby in the sky, a former WWII Fighter Pilot had a skirmish with a UFO.

Aerial Display Likely

Strangely, on the day of the game, the local sports editor, Eugene Fitzgerald, posted what seems a prophetic headline:

“Aerial Display Likely in Bison-Augustana Game Tonight.”

headline on The Fargo Forum sportspage on Oct. 1, 1948
The headline on The Fargo Forum sports page on Oct. 1, 1948. Image via Grand Forks Herald

Surely enough, there was an aerial display, but the sports editor predicted “more passing than rushing” in the game –not a UFO dogfight.

Only recently, the files created during the resulting government investigation were declassified for public eyes.

Related: Veteran Pilot Comes Forward to Report Orange Orb UFO in North Carolina

WWII Pilot George Gorman

Accomplished World War II pilot George Gorman and three experienced aviators witnessed the UFO, lending significant credibility. 

At the time of the Gorman Dogfight, he was a 25-year-old second lieutenant in the North Dakota Air National Guard.

That evening, Gorman and his fellow pilots were returning to the base from a cross-country flight to North Dakota in a P-51 Mustang. The pilots flew over the old Dacotah Field where the football game was happening. Around 8:30, Gorman remained flying while after the other pilots returned to Fargo’s Hector Airport. 

Gorman Spots a Flying Disk

Gorman remained in the air about two miles from the football field, planning to land around 9 p.m. An air traffic controller warned him about a smaller plane, a Piper Cub, flying at a lower elevation. The pilot acknowledged the plane, which he saw below him. Then, he spotted something entirely different and decided to investigate.

According to the Herald:

“He said it was a ‘flying disk,’ was round with well-defined edges, brilliantly lit and circling slowly over the city. He asked the tower about the object, and they said they only saw Gorman’s plane and the Piper Cub. This object was not showing up on radar.”

According to another account, he described the craft like this:

“It was about six to eight inches in diameter, clear white and completely without fuzz at the edges,” he reported. “It was blinking on and off. As I approached, however, the light suddenly became steady and pulled into a sharp left bank. I thought it was making a pass at the tower.”

Next, the encounter quickly escalated into a high-speed dogfight.

The Weirdest Experience of a Lifetime

As Gorman approached around 7,000 feet, the UFO started flying faster, at what he estimated could have been 600 miles per hour. The craft easily evaded Gorman, who could only go 400 mph, but then it aggressively flew back towards his plane. For the next 27 minutes, Gorman remained in a dogfight with the UFO.

“When the object was coming head-on, I held my plane pointed right at it,” Gorman said. “The object came so close that I involuntarily ducked my head because I thought a crash was inevitable. But the object zoomed over my head.”

After his encounter, a shocked Gorman had difficulty landing his plane. Later, told the Fargo Forum the event was “the weirdest experience I’ve had in my life.” The object made no sound and left no exhaust trail or odor.

Later, the pilot drew a diagram of what he experienced, which is now public after the Air Force declassified it.

George Gorman drawing
Declassified diagram/U.S. Air Force/ via Grand Forks Herald

Corroboration of the Gorman Dogfight 

On October 4, investigators from Air Force intelligence arrived to interview the witnesses of the Gorman Dogfight. They talked to Gorman and two air traffic controllers: Lloyd D. Jensen, and H.E. Johnson. 

On the ground, two Civil Aeronautics Authority employees also reported seeing the object.

In addition, the investigators interviewed the pilot of the Piper Cub, who was a local doctor, Dr. A. E. Cannon. A witness flying with the physician also saw the UFO. After landing, they went to the air traffic controllers to report what happened.

After the interviews, everyone had corroborated Gorman’s story.

In a sworn statement, the pilot said the UFO had shown “definitive thought” in its movements. Also, it had proven itself capable of easily outmaneuvering his plane.

“I am convinced that there was definite thought behind its maneuvers,” Gorman said. “I am further convinced that the object was governed by the laws of inertia because its acceleration was rapid but not immediate; and although it was able to turn fairly tight at considerable speed, it still followed a natural curve.”

The High-Speed Chase

The local newspaper interviewed the pilot, and Gorman described what happened:

“I’ve never seen anything like it,” Gorman reported. “If anyone else had reported such a thing, I would have thought they were crazy.”

While attempting to keep up with the UFO, he had blacked out for a moment.

 “I am in fairly good physical condition, and I do not believe that there are many if any, pilots who could withstand the turn and speed effected by the object, and remain conscious,” he wrote. “The object was not only able to out-turn and out-speed my aircraft… but was able to attain a far steeper climb and was able to maintain a constant rate of climb far in excess of my aircraft.”

Later, Gorman’s plane showed high radioactivity, explained away due to the high-altitude flight.

Just Another Weather Balloon?

Next, the investigators came up with a now-familiar story to explain the incident.

Per the Herald:

“Despite what seems to be evidence to the contrary, the Air Force concluded the object was a combination of looking at the planet Jupiter and a weather balloon. According to Eriksmoen, Gorman insisted it wasn’t a weather balloon, but the Air Material Command warned him not to divulge any further information, or he would be subject to a court-martial.


“That might be one reason why Gorman stayed pretty quiet throughout the rest of his military career, which took him to bases in Italy and throughout the U.S. He retired as a lieutenant colonel and died from pancreatic cancer in Texas in the early 1980s at the age of 59.”

Thus, the old weather balloon excuse, combined with the strange idea that unusually bright Jupiter had disoriented the pilot.

After Gorman retired, he would never speak publicly of the incident again. However, he reportedly told friends that the air balloon explanation never convinced him. 

Witnesses at the Football Game?

As noted, all of this was happening during the football game about two miles away. Notably, visibility was reportedly good that night, without clouds or rain. Strangely, there aren’t any current accounts available from witnesses at the game that night. If you have a verifiable account, please contact the Grand Forks Herald.

 J. Allen Hynek, an astronomer hired by the Air Force to study the incident, agreed with Gorman that the UFO wasn’t a weather balloon. Hynek worked for Project Sign, which would eventually be called the now-famous Project Blue Book.

Hynek’s son Paul gives his account on the History Channel’s “Project Blue Book” from 2019. Below, you can see Paul discuss his father and the show.

“No, it’s not super creepy at all to have the Game of Thrones supervillain play your TV dad,” Paul humorously said about the show. Aidan Gillen played J. Allen Hynek and was “Littlefinger” on the popular Game of Thrones series.

Paul Hynek makes a cameo in Project Blue Book, which he shows in the video. 

More About the Gorman Dogfight

The Gorman Dogfight was unique because it went on for 27 minutes and numerous reputable sources backed up the story, both on the ground and in the sky.

See more in the Project Blue Book clip from the History Channel below:

See more recaps of the show below:

Featured image: Screenshot of J. Allen Hynek via YouTube with screenshot via YouTube/History Channel


Did a ‘Galactic Federation’ Ask Trump Not To Reveal Extraterrestrials?

Does a Galactic Federation of aliens truly exist? An Israeli space security chief who led the country’s space program for 30 years has come forward at age 87 with astonishing claims about such a federation, Trump, and the U.S. government. Haim Eshed is a respected professor and retired general, a three-time recipient of the Israel Security Award.

Mainstream news stories about extraterrestrials and UFOs continue to become more commonplace in late 2020. The New York Times continued to report on the Pentagon’s ongoing UFO program, with words like “off-world vehicles” mentioned.

Now, NBC News and other mainstream outlets reported on Israel’s former chief of the Israel Defense Ministry’s space directorate. On December 12, 2020, Haim Eshed gave a shocking interview with Israel’s Yediot Aharonot newspaper in Hebrew. Then, the Jerusalem Post translated it into English.

Will Humans Be Ready to Meet a Galactic Federation?

NBC News reported that Eshed revealed the existence of a “Galactic Federation” of extraterrestrials. However, he suggests the beings from other worlds aren’t sure humans are ready to learn about their presence.

“The Unidentified Flying Objects have asked not to publish that they are here; humanity is not ready yet,” said Haim Eshed. 

When will we be ready? He claims the E.T.s believe we need to be comfortable with the general idea of spacecraft.

“They have been waiting until today for humanity to develop and reach a stage where we will understand, in general, what space and spaceships are,” Eshed said.

Thus, it sounds like we might soon be there soon, but not just yet. In the meantime, extraterrestrials are “equally curious” about humans as they continue to study “the fabric of the universe.”

Agreement Between the U.S. Government and Galactic Federation?

For those interested in aliens and UFOs, Eshed’s claims won’t come as a big surprise. For example, it’s long been claimed that former U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower allegedly signed a secret agreement with an extraterrestrial civilization in 1954.

Eshed claims there is indeed a cooperation agreement between species, and it’s actively going on today. Both Israel and the U.S. have “been dealing with aliens for years,” he says. Ostensibly, understanding the fabric of the universe was the grounds for the agreement with the Galactic Federation.

From NBC News:

“There is an agreement between the U.S. government and the aliens. They signed a contract with us to do experiments here,” he said. Eshed added that President Donald Trump was aware of the extraterrestrials’ existence and had been “on the verge of revealing” information but was asked not to in order to prevent “mass hysteria.”

In response to NBC’s request for comment, the Pentagon spokesperson, Sue Gogh, declined to respond. However, a NASA spokesperson claimed they had yet to find extraterrestrial life. Again, this might not be much of a surprise to followers of the reports of UFOs.

Known Secret Underground Base on Mars?

Last year, many speculated about what drove President Trump to create a new military branch, the Space Force. Did he do so after finding out about UFOs? Nick Pope, a former Minister of Defense from the U.K., believes that was probable.

Now, Haim Eshed has openly claimed a secret underground base on Mars, where aliens and Americans work together.

From the Jerusalem Post:

“If true, this would coincide with U.S. President Donald Trump’s creation of the Space Force as the fifth branch of the U.S. armed forces, though it is unclear how long this sort of relationship, if any, has been going on between the U.S. and its reported extraterrestrial allies.”

Eshed also claims President Trump is fully aware of the existence of extraterrestrials.

“But Eshed insists that Trump is aware of them, and that he was ‘on the verge’ of disclosing their existence. However, the Galactic Federation reportedly stopped him from doing so, saying they wished to prevent mass hysteria since they felt humanity needed to ‘evolve and reach a stage where we will… understand what space and spaceships are,'” Yediot Aharonot reported.”

Does Trump Know More?

Last year, we reported on an interview between Nick Pope and Fox News host Tucker Carlson concerning President Trump. Carlson has claimed, “a reliable source” gave him a tip about possible UFO “wreckage” held by the U.S. government.  

During an interview with the 45th President, Carlson asked Trump directly if he thought the government had UFO wreckage. In response, Trump left the door open, saying, “you know, I guess anything is possible.”

Although Carlson has been an avid Trump supporter, he told Pope that he thought Trump knew more than he was letting on. 

“My impression was that the President does know more than he said,” said Carlson.

Is it possible that Trump knows more, perhaps even about a secret underground base on Mars? About ongoing cooperation between species from other worlds? About a Galactic Federation? Or perhaps even more?

In Eshed’s book, The Universe Beyond the Horizon, he reportedly claims aliens prevented more than one nuclear apocalypse. Interestingly, Eshed also suggests that the long-fabled Men in Black are also quite real.  

Stories of UFOs appearing near nuclear facilities remain common and widespread. In previous posts, we discussed former astronaut, Edgar Mitchell, who believed extraterrestrials were actively working to prevent nuclear war.

See the video from NBC News below:

Featured image: Haim Eshed via Wikimedia, Fisher Institute for Air and Space Strategic Studies, CC BY-SA 2.5 with Trump via YouTube


Scientists On How Trees Talk Through an Ancient ‘Otherworld’ Network

Trees talk to each other deep underground. It’s an idea still relatively new to science but familiar to ancient beliefs.

Today, scientists are confirming that forests act like one big superorganism. Below the ground, fungal highways connect the trees. Through this highway, the oldest trees nurture their young. What’s more, the trees communicate and cooperate with other species. Thus, they may help each other, contrasting with the idea of selfish competition. 

Trees Talk on the ‘The Wood-Wide Web’

Yes, trees talk to each other, but how? 

After millions of years of evolution starting 600 million years ago, fungi and plants formed symbiotic relationships called a mycorrhiza. Notably, the word comes from the Greek for fungus and root.

Here’s how it works: In exchange for sugars and carbon from the trees, the fungi provide what trees require: minerals, nutrients, and a communication network.

Similar to an internet connection, the mycorrhizal network extends throughout the forest. Fungal threads called hyphae create a highway and merge with tree roots. Then, trees can send and receive items like these:

  • nitrogen
  • sugars
  • carbon
  • phosphorous
  • water
  • defense signals
  • chemicals
  • hormones

Amazingly, one tree can connect to hundreds of other trees, sending out signals. Along the threads, bacteria and other microbes swap nutrients with the fungi and the tree roots. 

A Global Map of the Tree Network

In 2019, scientists began mapping this “wood wide web” on a global scale. Since then, the international study produced the first global map of the mycorrhizal fungi network. Importantly, it could be the most important and ancient social network on Earth.

See how trees secretly talk via It’s Okay To Be Smart:

‘Mother Trees’ Protect the Forests

For three decades, ecologist Suzanne Simard from the University of British Columbia has studied how trees talk. After extensive experimentation, she has learned how the network she calls “the otherworld” connects life in forests. 

“Yes, trees are the foundation of forests, but a forest is much more than what you see,” says Simard.


“You see, underground there is this otherworld, a world of infinite biological pathways that connect trees and allow them to communicate, and allow the forest to behave as if it is a single organism. It might remind you of a sort of intelligence.”

Reaching out along the network, hub trees, she calls Mother Trees can nurture growing saplings. When older trees die, they may bequeath their nutrients, genes, even a kind of wisdom to others. Thus, by tapping into the otherworld, trees gain valuable resources and insight into their surroundings.

Community Resilience

As a consequence, connected trees have a distinct advantage and resilience. However, if you cut a tree off from the network it becomes vulnerable. Often, they succumb to disease at much higher rates. 

Unfortunately, practices like clear-cutting or replacing forests with a single species decimates this intricate ecosystem. Sadly, trees that don’t tap into the community network are vulnerable to disease and bugs. As a result, harvesting becomes unsustainable.

In a TED presentation, Simard notes:

“…Trees talk. Through back and forth conversations, [trees] increase the resilience of the whole community. It probably reminds you of our own social communities, and our families, well, at least some families,” said Simard.

See Simard discuss her research via TED:

Ancient Beliefs and Trees

Today, scientists can confirm that trees communicate in a social manner. However, the idea isn’t new. For example, for centuries, indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast, called the Tsimshian, have known that life in the forests is interconnected.

Suzanne Simard’s graduate student, Sm’hayetsk Teresa Ryan, is of Tsimshian heritage. In a recent New York Times piece, Ryan explained how Simard’s studies of mycorrhizal networks are similar to aboriginal traditions. However, European settlers were quick to dismiss these ideas.

“Everything is connected, absolutely everything,” said Ryan. “There are many aboriginal groups that will tell you stories about how all the species in the forests are connected, and many will talk about below-ground networks.”

The Menominee Forest

Ryan explained how the native American Menominee tribe sustainably harvest the 230,000-acre Menominee Forest in Wisconsin. Rather than focusing on money, they focus on ecology and are richly rewarded for it.

“Sustainability, the Menominee believe, means “thinking in terms of whole systems, with all their interconnections, consequences and feedback loops.” They maintain a large, old, and diverse growing stock, prioritizing the removal of low-quality and ailing trees over more vigorous ones and allowing trees to age 200 years or more — so they become what Simard might call grandmothers.”

By allowing old growth to continue, the forest continues to remain profitable, healthy, and densely forested today. 

“Since 1854, more than 2.3 billion board feet have been harvested — nearly twice the volume of the entire forest — yet there is now more standing timber than when logging began. “To many, our forest may seem pristine and untouched,” the Menominee wrote in one report. “In reality, it is one of the most intensively managed tracts of forest in the Lake States.”

What if all forests were managed using the wisdom of Native tribes? Imagine the potential if forests were always sustainable rather than exploited for short-term gains?

Related: Trees in North Carolina found to be the oldest known wetland trees on the planet

An Ancient Republic 

As we learn more about the intricate network of forests, it becomes clear there is a desperate need to change how we treat them. 

“The razing of an old-growth forest is not just the destruction of magnificent individual trees — it’s the collapse of an ancient republic whose interspecies covenant of reciprocation and compromise is essential for the survival of Earth as we’ve known it,” write Ferris Jabr.

Today, Sir David Attenborough and thousands of scientists believe urgent action is needed to combat the climate crisis. Forests are a fundamental component of the recovery. Thus, rewilding the world, restoring and wisely managing forests as stewards is a top priority.

“We’ve taken trees for grants and cleared nearly half of our planets’ forests,” said Attenborough. “Luckily, forests have an extraordinary ability to recover,” he explained. 

After centuries of decimating trees, it’s critical to preserve ancient forests. Attenborough calls for better farming techniques and planting more forests as part of an essential global restoration. In return, people would have more natural forests than ever, stabilize the climate, and get all the resources we need.

Related: Oldest frescos ever found in the Mediterranean region feature the Tree of Life

The Tree of Life

Ancient beliefs from all over the world have held trees as symbols of connection and worship: The Tree of Life.

“Trees have always been symbols of connection. In Mesoamerican mythology, an immense tree grows at the center of the universe, stretching its roots into the underworld and cradling Earth and heaven in its trunk and branches. Norse cosmology features a similar tree called Yggdrasil. A popular Japanese Noh drama tells of wedded pines that are eternally bonded despite being separated by a great distance,” wrote Ferris Jabr for the Times.

In ancient Mesoamerica, the ceiba tree was the Tree of Life where the world came into existence. Its roots went deep into the underworld while its branches supported the heavens. In the Bible, the Garden of Eden was home to the Tree of Life.

Egyptian myths also refer to the Ished-Tree, where the gods were born. In ancient Assyria, artists often carved a tree that some say looks like DNA central to sculptural reliefs. Throughout world religions, a mystical tree appears in Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Judaism.

Trees have been important to cultures around the world since the beginning. Today, it’s never been more important to protect trees and our interconnected natural world.

See more below:

Featured image: Fractal by Shabinh via PixabayPixabay License


Astrophysicist on Likely Outcome if a Time Traveler Tried to Stop COVID-19

Is it possible for a time traveler to change the past? If so, it appears the universe might have some unknown power to rearrange events.

New research from the University of Queensland suggests that it might be impossible to go back in time and change past events. Even if time travel is possible, then a bizarre chain of events could rearrange the timeline. It sounds like the plotline of a science fiction movie but could be real.

Appearing on video for The Hill, National Science Foundation Program Director and Astrophysicist Joe Pesce discussed the new research on Einstein’s theory of general relativity. 

Using COVID-19 as an example, he suggests if a time traveler tried to stop patient zero from spreading the virus, then time would correct itself. Thus, they or someone else might become patient zero, and the pandemic would happen anyway.

Using himself as the hypothetical time traveler, Pesce explained:

“I travel back in time. If I stop patient zero from being infected and I stop the pandemic, then that eliminates my motivation for going into the past. And that is the crux of the grandfather paradox.”


“So, what these researchers have found in the mathematics is the events would recalibrate themselves. So maybe I go, and I stop patient zero, but I then become patient zero, and I start the infection.”


“Ultimately, the endpoint is still the same; there’s still going to be a pandemic. But, particular events, maybe the details of the timeline change. And so the mathematics are showing that you really can’t go back and affect an endpoint. The endpoint will always be the same. We may get to it in a different way,” he said.

Notably, it remains unclear what mechanism the universe would use to recalibrate the timeline. Would changing events not in itself be a sort of time travel? In that case, who or what is doing the edits to the timeline? It’s fascinating to think about.

Is a Time Traveler Possible at All?

We know time dilation is possible since scientists experimentally verified it in 1977. But what about time travel? In March 2019, Russian researchers claimed to have developed the first of a primitive time machine at the atomic level. 

Nevertheless, Pesce says significant time travel for large, complex objects or human beings is unlikely. At the quantum level, it’s so complex that moving trillions of particles back precisely to where they were at any given point in time would be almost unthinkable, but perhaps not impossible. 

On the other hand, scientists don’t know what would happen if someone passed through a black hole, and wormholes remain unverified.

“From a time travel perspective, of course, we don’t know what happens when you fall into the black hole,” said Pesce. 

Discussing the Russian research, Pesce talked about why he thinks time travel is unlikely below:

Video from The Hill:

Related: If You Travel Through A Black Hole, Where Do You Wind Up?

Black Holes and Blasts Inside the Milky Way

Scientists know there is a supermassive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy. In June 2020, NASA noted that it unleashed an enormous burst of energy 3.5 million years ago after a massive explosion. 

As a result, our ancient hominid ancestors may have seen a “ghostly glow” deep in space as the blast lit up the Magellanic Stream like “a Christmas tree.” The Magellanic Stream is a ribbon-like tail of gas orbiting the Milky Way. 

Magnetars and Magnetic Fields

In early November 2020, astrophysicists reported evidence of a fast radio burst which traveled to Earth, possibly from a neutron star in our Milky Way galaxy.

A fast radio burst is an emission of powerful radio waves that last for only a few milliseconds. At the same time, scientists also detected X-ray emissions along with the radio burst. It’s the first time such a burst was observed happening along with X-rays, and it may have come from inside our galaxy. However, fast radio bursts outside our galaxy were first discovered in 2007.

According to Dr. Pesce, neutron stars are 10 to 20 kilometers in size, three times the Sun’s mass, and the densest objects known apart from black holes. One teaspoon of a neutron star is about 900 times the mass of the Great Pyramid of Egypt.

When a neutron star rotates rapidly, it can emit pulsars, beams of light known since the late 1960s. Some of these stars have extreme magnetic fields and are dubbed magnetars. These mysterious objects may have the strongest magnetic fields in the universe. It’s known there are at least ten in our galaxy, but there could be hundreds. 

Could magnetars bend the fabric of space and create a wormhole? For now, wormholes remain speculative but consistent with the theory of general relativity by Einstein. Thus, these hypothetical “bridges” through space-time are called Einstein-Rosen bridges.

See Astrophysicist Dr. Joe Pesce discuss Neutron stars from The Hill:

Featured image: Time traveler by geralt via PixabayPixabay License with Coronavirus by dianakuehn30010 via Pixabay, Pixabay License


Megaflood on Mars: Another Sign of Life on the Red Planet

Today, we learn about a megaflood on Mars; just the latest evidence life existed there in the past. Furthermore, chances are, it could live there today.

Notably, a rover named Perseverance is about to land on Mars, seeking signs of ancient life. On the NASA website, there is a countdown to the landing date of February 18, 2021. Currently, it’s traveling at an astounding 56,932 miles per hour, relative to the Sun.

When Perseverance lands, it could finally help answer the big questions: Was Mars inhabited by life? More importantly, perhaps, is life living there right now?

Ancient Megaflood on Mars 

Today, we get only more confirmation that the Red Planet was capable of supporting life. A previous rover, Curiosity, provided data that has revealed something new. For the first time, we learn that four billion years ago, there was an epic megaflood on Mars. 

The orbiter revealed giant wave-shaped features in sedimentary layers at the bottom of the Gale crater. Following the discovery, these features have been dubbed “mega-ripples” and “antidunes.” Incredibly, they still stand 30 feet high and some 450 feet apart.

The data from Curiosity has shown signs the flood was of Biblical proportions.

Unsurprisingly, scientists believe that a meteoroid impacted the planet at the crater, causing ice stored on the surface to melt. Then, the resulting giant flash floods were of an “unimaginable magnitude.”

It’s the first time a megaflood on Mars has been identified from the data.

“We identified megafloods for the first time using detailed sedimentological data observed by the rover Curiosity,” said study co-author Alberto G. Fairen from Cornell University. 

After the floods, the scientists believe there followed a period of global torrential rains and higher temperatures. Thus, Fairen confirms that life may have been possible on Mars.

“Early Mars was an extremely active planet from a geological point of view. The planet had the conditions needed to support the presence of liquid water on the surface — and on the Earth, where there’s water, there’s life,” Fairen said. 

Related: Did Curiosity snap an image of a mysterious “creature” on Mars?

A Landscape Similar to Some on Earth Today

On August 6, 2012, one-ton Curiosity landed in the massive crater at the foot of a mountain called “Mount Sharp.” The mountain is taller than Mount Rainier and three times higher than the Grand Canyon is deep.

Scientists chose the sight since there abundant signs water had been present, the key ingredient for life. Last year, we shared the news that scientists discovered Gale crater was once home to briny pools and lakes, compared to present-day Altiplano Lakes in the Chilean Andes.

In September 2020, scientists from Italy, Australia, and Germany found evidence of a saltwater lake under Mars’ southern ice cap. The water is still in liquid form but so high in salt that the pools don’t’ freeze entirely. Possibly, the water could harbor extremophile life forms that can live in low-oxygen and extreme temperatures.

When the 10-foot-long Perseverance rover lands with its smaller flying drone named “Ingenuity,” it will be at the site of a much-crater called  Jezero. At one time, Jezero may have been a massive river delta. Perhaps, sediment in the bottom of the cater could contain signs of microbial lifeforms.

Related: Researchers Stunned by ‘Plausible’ Sign of Life on Venus

More about the Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter from Engadget:

Featured image: Screenshot via YouTube


Saqqara Reveals More Exquisite Coffins, Mummies, and Rare Wooden Statues

This is an extraordinary time for anyone interested in Egyptian tombs.

A new fascinating film, Secrets of the Saqqara Tomb, has premiered on Netflix. Plus, we learn that over 100 new ancient coffins and rare 40 wooden and gilded statues have been discovered in Saqqara, meaning another film is probably in order!

Saqqara Keeps Revealing More

Saqqara is home to the first-known burial pyramid, the Step Pyramid of King Djoser, as well as over a dozen others. Today, the vast pharaonic necropolis 20 miles south of Cairo reveals ever more finds with more predicted soon.

At the feet of the Step Pyramid of Djoser, a makeshift exhibit took place on November 14, 2020. The exhibit showed off the colorful, exquisitely detailed finds from Saqqara, part of the ancient capital of Memphis.

Although thousands of years old, the relics remain delicately painted and decorated. Notably, some look incredibly ornate. It’s as though they were created a short time ago.

Tourism and Antiquities Minister Khaled El-Anany spoke to a news conference:

“Saqqara has yet to reveal all of its contents. It is a treasure,” El-Anany said. “Excavations are still underway. Whenever we empty a burial shaft of sarcophagi, we find an entrance to another.”

Related: Archaeologists Discover Another Buried Sphinx at the Kom Ombo Temple Near Aswan

The Ptolemaic Dynasty

The perfectly preserved wooded coffins are sealed, and many have mummies inside, now seeing daylight for the first time in at least 2,500 years. Notably, they came from the Ptolemaic dynasty that ruled Egypt for some 300 years from 320 BC to about 30 BC, and the Late Period (664-332 BC).

Related: Dozens of mummies discovered in ancient Egyptian tomb not far from the pyramids

See some of the finds from Al Jazeera English below:

The Grand Egyptian Museum

Today, some of the coffins are on their way to a new museum near the Giza Pyramids. Hopefully, the new Grand Egyptian Museum may display some of the coffins in public if it opens next year.

Earlier in September, some 140 sealed sarcophagi containing mummies were found in the same area of Saqqara. Among them was a cache of mummified animals, including a lion cub. The Netflix movie focuses on this find, a previously unknown royal priest called “Wahtye”, and his family.

Mostafa Waziri from the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities says he expects to locate an ancient workshop where the coffins were created –perhaps in 2021.

Despite the pandemic, Egypt reopened its borders to visitors in July. After revealing these discoveries, they hope to see a surge in tourism, which has waned due to Covid-19.

See more of the finds from Global News:

Featured images: Screenshots via YouTube